Jumat, 06 November 2009

The History Of Kraton Surakarta

In 1742, the court of the great Mataram Dynasty in Kartasura was invaded and ransacked by a rival rurel from the island kingdom of Madura. Three years later, the Mataram king, Pakubuwono II restored to his throne with dutch assistance, move his court to nearby Surakarta where he had built a new palace on the banks of Java longest rives, Bengawan Solo. According to legend, the site of the Kraton Surakarta was chosen by the queen of the south seas, Nyai Loro Kidul whose authority traditionally legitimizes the Javanese Kingship. Surrounding the main Pendopo in the central kraton court yard is a sea of black sand, indicating that the kraton falls withirg the environs od Loro Kiduls south sea territory.
On the top floor of a curious octagonal tower which stands to the left of the Mataram Kraton gate is a medifatdon room in which the Sunan, on the anniversary of his coronation communes with Loro Kidul and reaffirms the divine mandate for her kingship. The Kraton Surakarta was swept by five in 1985, tragically destroying almost 70 % of the building including the Pendopo and Royal apartments. The narrow always which for historical veasons of security provide the only access to the kraton was reduced to a smouldering heap of ash.
In keeping with the legend of its genesis, the ashes of the kraton were cast into the south sea and returned to Loro Kidul. Restoration of the kraton is being carried out according to the exact. Decification of the original buildings and using identical materials, the great sky blue Pendopo once again stands in its sea of sand surrounded by 72 sacred trees and shaded by cheerful green and white candy stripe royal apartments a new kase of life.

ARBOTION : Legal or Illegal

There has been a great deal of discussion on the problem of abortion. The discussion : “ Is abortion legal or illegal?”

When a country faces the problem of overpopulation, the government applied some methods to solve it. One of them is the method of contraception. However, this method is not one hundred percent effective and successful. Consequently, some people argue that the abortion is the only effective way out.

Nevertheless, abortion may cause many negative effects for women’s health. Women risk their health and lives in bearing the weight of the operation and its consequences. The most common complications are inflammation, infertility, endometriosis and many other kinds of ovary illness.

So far, abortions have become a dilemma for countries with a large number of citizens.

Minggu, 01 November 2009

How does the water Cycle work?

The water cycle is also known as the hydrological cycle. There is the same amount of water on the Earth now as there was when the earth began. The water cycle is how the earth’s water recycles itself. The water cycle involves : evaporation, condensation, rain and precipitation process.

Fist of all, water molecules from lakes, rivers, streams, reservoirs, and the sea get heated up by the sun and the turn into vapour that rises into the air. Next, these water molecules form into clouds; this is because a process called condensation occurs. When the air and the water cool, they form drops of water which then fall to the earth as rain. If they are frozen, they become snow or sleet.

Once the water reaches the ground, it can flow across the land until it reaches rivers, lakes, streams, or the sea. It can also sink into the ground and flow because of gravity through gaps in rock, gravel and sand. Because of this, it reaches these bodies of water too.

Now the cycle begins again, when water is evaporated once more

Rabu, 28 Oktober 2009

Nature Reserves of java

Indonesia has been ahead of most of the world in preserving natural wonders. In fact, 10 percent of its land area is under protection. The range of protected areas extends from volcanoes to orangutan habitats and carol reefs, nearly 200 reserves and parks.

Nevertheless, understaffing and aggressive loggers threaten many of the parks.

Local porters can be hired and park guards may often accompany visitors as guides. They should be tipped, plus reimbursed expenses. To avoid misunderstandings, it is advisable to negotiate fees clearly before setting out.

The listing below, though not comprehensive, covers some of Indonesia’s finest reserves and park.
Ujung kulon: At java ‘s western tip, ujung kulon is Indonesia’s first and premier reserve. You will have to be lucky to see one of the park’s 60 remaining javan rhinos, but there are many other fascinating animals, including, leopards, gibbons, long-tailed macaques, leaf monkeys, crocodiles, muntjaks, mouse deer and herds of grazing wild oxen.
There are two types of accomodation available: most visitors stay at the guesthouses on Peucang Island, but it’s also worthwhile to stop over for a night or two at the older guesthouse on Handeleum Island to visiting the Cigenter River, a favorite rhino haunt just across the strait. Bedding, furniture and cooking facilities are provided at both guesthouses, but you must bring your own food.

Ujung kulon is accessible by motorbike track from labuan via sumur to taman Jaya, where the park headquarters is located (abaut a six-hour ride). From here, it is a leisurely two day ride to kalejetan and a peucang island via the south coast. Or else, character a boat from labuan directly to peucang or handeleum, a five-hour voyage each way. While there, visit the volcanic island of krakatau, 40 kilometers (25 mil) northwest of labuan, in the middle of the sunda Straits separating Java from Sumatra.

Jurnalistik : makna dan ruang lingkup.

secara harfiah, Jurnalistik (Journalistic) artinya kewartawanan atau hak-ihwal pemberitaan. Kata dasarnya “jurnal” (journal) artinya laporan atau catatan, atau “jour” dalam bahasa prancis yang berarti “hari” (day) atau “catatan harian” (diary). Dalam bahasa belanda journalistiek artinya penyiaran catatan harian. Secara konseptual, jurnalistik dapat dipahami tiga sudut pandang : sebagai proses, teknik dan ilmu.

• Sebagai proses, jurnalistik adalah “aktifitas” mencari mengolah, menulis dan menyebar luaskan informasi kepada publik melalui media massa. Aktivitas ini dilakukan oleh wartawan (jurnalis).
• Sebagai teknik, jurnalis adalah “keahlian” (expertise) termasuk keahlian dalam pengumpulan bahan penulisan seperti peliputan peristiwa (reportase) dan wawancara. Sebagai ilmu, jurnalistik adalah “bidang kajian” pembuatan dan penyebarluasan informasi ( peristiwa, opini, pemikiran, ide ) melalui media massa.
Jurnalistik termasuk ilmu terapan (applied science) yang dinamis dan terus berkembang sesuai dengan perkembangan teknologi dan komunikasidan dinamika masyarakat itu sendiri.
• Sebagai ilmu, jurnalistik adalah termasuk dalam bidang kajian ilmu komunikasi, yakni yang menkaji proses penyampaia pesan, gagasan, pemikiran atau informasi kepada oaring lain kepada orang lain dengan maksud memberi tahu, mempengaruhi, atau memberikan kejelasan.

Jurnalistik adalah bagian dari kehidupan kita sehari – hari. Jiks setiap hari kita membaca, mendengar atau menonton program berita, maka sadar atau tidak sadar kita terlibat dalam duni jurnaistik, minimal sebagai obyek atau sasaran (target audience) dari para jurnalis.

Bagi wartawan atau jurnalis, memahami teknik dan ilmu jurnalistik tentu merupakan hal yang mutlak. Namun demikian, masyarakat pembaca, pendengar, atau pemirsapun penting mengenal dan memahami jurnalistik, setidaknya dasar – dasarnya, sehingga tidak menjadi obyek pasif media massa bahkan menjadi pembaca, pendengar dan penonton kritis dan aktif terhadap berita yang disjikan media.

Secara praktis, jurnalistik adalah disiplin dan teknik ilmu pengumpulan, penulian dan pelaporan berita, termasuk proses penyuntingan dan penyajian. Produk jurnalistik utamanya berita disajika atau disebarluaskan melalui berbagai jenis media massa, termasuk surat kabar, majalah, radio dan TV termasuk internet. Setiap hari wartawan meliput banyak peristiwa penting untuk diberikan sehingga peristiwa itupun diketahui publik secara luas.

Wartawan, dengan aktifitasnya tersebut, dapat disebut saksi sejarah sekaligus terus melukis catatan sejarah. Mantan editor Washing post, phil Graham, menggambarkannya sebagai “naskah kasar pertama sejarah” (a ferst rough darft of history) karena wartawan sering merekam perisiwa bersejarah pada kejadia dan pada saat yang sama harus membuat berita dalam tenggan waktu (deadline) yang pendek (wikipedia)

Aktivitas jurnalistik utama adalah meliputi dan memberitakan sebuah peristiwa melalui “rumus baku” berita 5 W + 1 H.
- Who, siapa yang terlibat.
- What, apa yang terjadi.
- When, kapan terjadi.
- Where, di mana terjadi.
- Why, mengapa terjadi.
- How, bagaimana proses kejadian.

Lebih dai itu, waratawan memperti,bangkan peristiwa itu untuk diberikan / idak, dengan parameter “nilai berita” (news value), seperti kepentingannya bagi publik (signiface) dan dampaknya masyarakat (effects), serta menarik tidaknya bagi public, sering terjadi diskusi atau perdebatan di “ruang berita” (news room) atau ruang redaksi dalam prosesseleksi peristiwa mana yang akan dipublikasikan.

Jenis (media) jurnalistik berdasarkan jenis media dan teknik publikasinya, juranalistik dapat dibedakanmenjadi jurnalistik cetak, jurnalistik elektronik dan jurnalistik online.

Jurnalistik cetak (print journalism) adalah proses jurnalistik yang produk atau laporannya ditulis dan disajikan dalam media massa cetak (printed media),
Sperti surat kabar, tabloid, dan majalah.

Teknik penulisannya menggunakan “bahasa tuli” (written language) bergaya “bahasa jurnalistik”(language of mass media), bercirikan antara lain hemat kata, sederhana, mudah dimngerti, tidak mengandung arti ganda, dan umumnya digunakan.

Jurnalistik elektrinik disebut juga Bruadcast jouralilism, yakni proses jurnalistik yang hasil liputannya disebarkan melalui media radio dan TV. Berita radio hanya menggunakan suara dan efek suara (auditory). Berita Tv denga tambahan gambar (visual).
Wartawan radio/ lebih sering disebut reporter/ mengumpulka fakta dan menyajikan melalui suara (disuarakan, bercerita) saja. Sedangkam wartawantu juga sering disebut reporter atau jurnalis itu melaporkan peristiwa dengan suara (kata – kata) sekaligus gambar hasil shooting dan atau rekaman video.

Eknik penulisan naskah radio TV menggunakan bahasa tutur, yakni kata – kata yang bisa digunakan dalam percakapan sehari – hari (spoken words), sederhana, mudah dimengerti, ringkas, tidak rumit dan jelas.